Hibernate Vs. JDBC ( A comparison)

By: Emiley J.  

JDBC stands for Java Database Connectivity allows developers to connect, query and update a database using the Structured Query Language. JDBC API standard provides Java developers to interact with different RDBMS and access table data through Java application without learning RDBMS details and using Database Specific JDBC Drivers.

Hibernate is an Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) solution for JAVA. It is a powerful, high performance object/relational persistence and query service. It allows us to develop persistent classes following object-oriented idiom – including association, inheritance and polymorphism.

Listed below is the comparison chart of difference beetween JDBC and Hibernate 



With JDBC, developer has to write code to map an object model's data representation to a relational data model and its corresponding database schema.  

Hibernate is flexible and powerful ORM solution to map Java classes to database tables. Hibernate itself takes care of this mapping using XML files so developer does not need to write code for this. 

With JDBC, the automatic mapping of Java objects with database tables and vice versa conversion is to be taken care of by the developer manually with lines of code.  

Hibernate provides transparent persistence and developer does not need to write code explicitly to map database tables tuples to application objects during interaction with RDBMS.  

JDBC supports only native Structured Query Language (SQL). Developer has to find out the efficient way to access database, i.e. to select effective query from a number of queries to perform same task.  

Hibernate provides a powerful query language Hibernate Query Language (independent from type of database) that is expressed in a familiar SQL like syntax and includes full support for polymorphic queries. Hibernate also supports native SQL statements. It also selects an effective way to perform a database manipulation task for an application.  

Application using JDBC to handle persistent data (database tables) having database specific code in large amount. The code written to map table data to application objects and vice versa is actually to map table fields to object properties. As table changed or database changed then it’s essential to change object structure as well as to change code written to map table-to-object/object-to-table. 

Hibernate provides this mapping itself. The actual mapping between tables and application objects is done in XML files. If there is change in Database or in any table then the only need to change XML file properties.  

With JDBC, it is developer’s responsibility to handle JDBC result set and convert it to Java objects through code to use this persistent data in application. So with JDBC, mapping between Java objects and database tables is done manually.  

Hibernate reduces lines of code by maintaining object-table mapping itself and returns result to application in form of Java objects. It relieves programmer from manual handling of persistent data, hence reducing the development time and maintenance cost.  

With JDBC, caching is maintained by hand-coding.  

Hibernate, with Transparent Persistence, cache is set to application work space. Relational tuples are moved to this cache as a result of query. It improves performance if client application reads same data many times for same write. Automatic Transparent Persistence allows the developer to concentrate more on business logic rather than this application code.  

In JDBC there is no check that always every user has updated data. This check has to be added by the developer.  

Hibernate enables developer to define version type field to application, due to this defined field Hibernate updates version field of database table every time relational tuple is updated in form of Java class object to that table. So if two users retrieve same tuple and then modify it and one user save this modified tuple to database, version is automatically updated for this tuple by Hibernate. When other user tries to save updated tuple to database then it does not allow saving it because this user does not have updated data.  

Archived Comments

1. Fantastic article - For what it's worth , if someone is interested a a form , my boss used a templat
View Tutorial          By: Davida Harnish at 2016-04-15 10:57:06

2. hibernate == BOHICA
View Tutorial          By: bohica at 2015-08-20 10:29:12

3. I'm just learning about these differences. I'm not very experienced in Hibernate and I never used JD
View Tutorial          By: Radu Anastase at 2015-08-07 13:00:15

4. sUPER eXPLAnation
View Tutorial          By: Surendra at 2015-06-13 07:23:56

5. Unable to understand all the points, quiet confusing.
View Tutorial          By: KB at 2015-04-15 10:11:14

6. good but not v.good. it seems the author is big fan of hibernate, no doubt hibernate is great tool b
View Tutorial          By: Muhammad Ishaq Awan at 2014-10-29 07:00:44

7. I really not get your points...
I don't know why you people give so confusing articles.

View Tutorial          By: darshit jain at 2014-05-22 09:07:45

8. Good Work ...
View Tutorial          By: Sagan at 2013-08-13 13:38:30

9. great work
View Tutorial          By: Bhaskaran at 2013-01-21 11:23:19

10. This is just Great, didn't find anything like this before. Its point to point and very explanatory.
View Tutorial          By: Vikrant Verma at 2012-10-07 04:54:42

11. Thank you for good explanation. I am thinking of using hibernate in my next project. This article he
View Tutorial          By: Darshan at 2012-06-22 15:44:57

12. Hi i am sanjay ,
I got the exact difference between jdbc and hibernate.
thanks a lot t

View Tutorial          By: Sanjay Patel at 2012-05-06 11:36:00

13. Hibernate can be an effective framework if one approaches the application design holistically, and f
View Tutorial          By: Giao Vu at 2011-08-03 23:40:02

14. I created performance test beetwen hibernate and JDBC, you can find it here : http://phpdao.com/hibe
View Tutorial          By: Tomek at 2011-05-21 07:17:50

15. Hibernate with annotations and QBE api reduced our coding efforts by 70%. Its the best ORM tool to
View Tutorial          By: Andrew at 2011-04-29 10:34:26

16. From the last 2 year. i'm working on hibernate framework... I don't see any advantage other than les
View Tutorial          By: nick at 2011-01-03 02:11:48

17. Artical is good but it is not clearly define that which one is fast, hibernate or jdbc.
View Tutorial          By: Rohit Saxena at 2010-09-02 04:00:11

18. There is no comparison of performance in the article. Speed and how much resources would be interest
View Tutorial          By: Tomas at 2010-01-17 05:53:48

Most Viewed Articles (in Hibernate )

Latest Articles (in Hibernate)

Comment on this tutorial