Joins example in SQL

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A distinguishing feature of relational databases is that it is possible to get data from more than one table in what is called a join. Suppose that after retrieving the names of employees who have company cars, one wanted to find out who has which car, including the make, model, and year of car. This information is stored in another table, Cars, shown in Table below.

Table: Cars

Car Number Make Model Year
5 Honda Civic DX 1996
12 Toyota Corolla 1999

There must be one column that appears in both tables in order to relate them to each other. This column, which must be the primary key in one table, is called the foreign key in the other table. In this case, the column that appears in two tables is Car_Number, which is the primary key for the table Cars and the foreign key in the table Employees. If the 1996 Honda Civic were wrecked and deleted from the Cars table, then Car_Number 5 would also have to be removed from the Employees table in order to maintain what is called referential integrity. Otherwise, the foreign key column (Car_Number) in Employees would contain an entry that did not refer to anything in Cars. A foreign key must either be null or equal to an existing primary key value of the table to which it refers. This is different from a primary key, which may not be null. There are several null values in the Car_Number column in the table Employees because it is possible for an employee not to have a company car.

The following code asks for the first and last names of employees who have company cars and for the make, model, and year of those cars. Note that the FROM clause lists both Employees and Cars because the requested data is contained in both tables. Using the table name and a dot (.) before the column name indicates which table contains the column.

SELECT Employees.First_Name, Employees.Last_Name, Cars.Make,
           Cars.Model, Cars.Year
FROM Employees, Cars
WHERE Employees.Car_Number = Cars.Car_Number

This returns a result set that will look similar to the following:

FIRST_NAME   LAST_NAME      MAKE        MODEL     YEAR
-----------  ------------   --------   ---------  -------
Axel         Washington     Honda       CivicDX   1996
Florence     Wojokowski     Toyota      Corolla   1999


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