## Bitwise logical operators in Java

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The bitwise logical operators are **&**, **|**, **^**, and **~**.
The following table shows the outcome of each operation. In the discussion that follows, keep in mind
that the bitwise operators are applied to each individual bit within each operand.

**The Bitwise NOT**

Also called the *bitwise complement, *the unary NOT operator, **~**, inverts all of the bits of its operand. For example, the number 42, which has the following bit pattern:

```
00101010
```

becomes

11010101

after the NOT operator is applied.

**The Bitwise AND**

The AND operator, **&**,
produces a 1 bit if both operands are also 1. A zero is produced in all other cases. Here is an example:

&00001111 15

----------

00001010 10

**The Bitwise OR**

The OR operator, **|**,
combines bits such that if either of the bits in the operands is a 1, then the resultant bit is a 1, as shown here:

```
00101010 42
```

| 00001111 15

v

00101111 47

**The Bitwise XOR**

The XOR operator, **^**,
combines bits such that if exactly one operand is 1, then the result is 1. Otherwise, the result is zero. The following example shows
the effect of the **^**.
This example also demonstrates a useful attribute of the XOR
operation. Notice how the bit pattern of 42 is inverted wherever the second operand has a 1
bit. Wherever the second operand has a 0 bit, the first operand is unchanged. You will
find this property useful when performing some types of bit manipulations.

```
00101010 42
```

^00001111 15

----------

00100101 37

**
Using the Bitwise Logical Operators**

The following program demonstrates the bitwise logical operators:

```
// Demonstrate the bitwise logical operators.
```

class BitLogic {

public static void main(String args[]) {

String binary[] = {

"0000", "0001", "0010",
"0011", "0100", "0101", "0110",

"0111",

"1000", "1001", "1010",
"1011", "1100", "1101", "1110",

"1111"

};

int a = 3; // 0 + 2 + 1 or 0011 in binary

int b = 6; // 4 + 2 + 0 or 0110 in binary

int c = a | b;

int d = a & b;

int e = a ^ b;

int f = (~a & b) | (a & ~b);

int g = ~a & 0x0f;

System.out.println(" a = " + binary[a]);

System.out.println(" b = " + binary[b]);

System.out.println(" a|b = " + binary[c]);

System.out.println(" a&b = " + binary[d]);

System.out.println(" a^b = " + binary[e]);

System.out.println("~a&b|a&~b = " + binary[f]);

System.out.println(" ~a = " + binary[g]);

}

}

In this example, **a **and **b **have bit patterns which
present all four possibilities for two binary digits: 0-0, 0-1, 1-0, and 1-1. You can see how the
**| **and **& **operate on each bit by the results in **c **and **d**.
The values assigned to **e **and **f **are the same and
illustrate how the **^ **works.
The string array named **binary **holds the human-readable,
binary representation of the numbers 0 through 15. In this example, the array is
indexed to show the binary representation of each result. The array is constructed such
that the correct string representation of a binary value **n **is stored in **binary[n]**.
The value of **~a **is
ANDed with **0x0f **(0000
1111 in binary) in order to reduce its value to less than 16, so it can be
printed by use of the **binary **array. Here is the output
from this program:

```
a = 0011
```

b = 0110

a|b = 0111

a&b = 0010

a^b = 0101

~a&b|a&~b = 0101

~a = 1100

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#### Archived Comments

1. super explanation

View Tutorial By: pree at 2013-12-30 16:41:32

2. Detailed explanation on bitwise operators with exa

View Tutorial By: Lohith at 2017-07-04 19:16:43