Sending emails and Receiving emails using Ruby On rails

By: David Heinemeier Hansson Emailed: 1698 times Printed: 2203 times    

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Action Mailer is a framework for designing email-service layers. These layers are used to consolidate code for sending out forgotten passwords, welcome wishes on signup, invoices for billing, and any other use case that requires a written notification to either a person or another system.

Additionally, an Action Mailer class can be used to process incoming email, such as allowing a weblog to accept new posts from an email (which could even have been sent from a phone).

Sending emails

The framework works by setting up all the email details, except the body, in methods on the service layer. Subject, recipients, sender, and timestamp are all set up this way. An example of such a method:

  def signed_up(recipient)
    recipients recipient
    subject    "[Signed up] Welcome #{recipient}"
    from       "system@loudthinking.com"
    body       :recipient => recipient
  end

The body of the email is created by using an Action View template (regular ERb) that has the content of the body hash parameter available as instance variables. So the corresponding body template for the method above could look like this:

  Hello there,

  Mr. <%= @recipient %>

And if the recipient was given as "david@loudthinking.com", the email generated would look like this:

  Date: Sun, 12 Dec 2004 00:00:00 +0100
  From: system@loudthinking.com
  To: david@loudthinking.com
  Subject: [Signed up] Welcome david@loudthinking.com

  Hello there,

  Mr. david@loudthinking.com

You never actually call the instance methods like signed_up directly. Instead, you call class methods like deliver_* and create_* that are automatically created for each instance method. So if the signed_up method sat on ApplicationMailer, it would look like this:

  ApplicationMailer.create_signed_up("david@loudthinking.com")  # => tmail object for testing
  ApplicationMailer.deliver_signed_up("david@loudthinking.com") # sends the email
  ApplicationMailer.new.signed_up("david@loudthinking.com")     # won't work!

Receiving emails

To receive emails, you need to implement a public instance method called receive that takes a tmail object as its single parameter. The Action Mailer framework has a corresponding class method, which is also called receive, that accepts a raw, unprocessed email as a string, which it then turns into the tmail object and calls the receive instance method.

Example:

  class Mailman < ActionMailer::Base
    def receive(email)
      page = Page.find_by_address(email.to.first)
      page.emails.create(
        :subject => email.subject, :body => email.body
      )

      if email.has_attachments?
        for attachment in email.attachments
          page.attachments.create({
            :file => attachment, :description => email.subject
          })
        end
      end
    end
  end

This Mailman can be the target for Postfix or other MTAs. In Rails, you would use the runner in the trivial case like this:

  ./script/runner 'Mailman.receive(STDIN.read)'

However, invoking Rails in the runner for each mail to be received is very resource intensive. A single instance of Rails should be run within a daemon if it is going to be utilized to process more than just a limited number of email.

Configuration

The Base class has the full list of configuration options. Here‘s an example:

  ActionMailer::Base.smtp_settings = {
    :address        => 'smtp.yourserver.com', # default: localhost
    :port           => '25',                  # default: 25
    :user_name      => 'user',
    :password       => 'pass',
    :authentication => :plain                 # :plain, :login or :cram_md5
  }

Dependencies

Action Mailer requires that the Action Pack is either available to be required immediately or is accessible as a GEM.

Bundled software

Download

The latest version of Action Mailer can be found at

Documentation can be found at

Installation

You can install Action Mailer with the following command.

  % [sudo] ruby install.rb

from its distribution directory.

License

Action Mailer is released under the MIT license.


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